hey guys and welcome to today’s video so it is a Monday today and Monday to me are actually not that busy and I really appreciate my free Monday’s because I have very busy weekends usually or I don’t really have a weekend if you want to think of it like that so I am glad that I have a free day on Monday with not that many contact hours so yes we’ve already started studying apparently we are doing our teeth and I just decided that morning to read some lecture notes and these are the notes that we were going to be following that day in the lecture that I had at 12:00 but in the morning I have a few hours to myself so I decided actually to do it on camera to physically make myself do it because it is something that I am NOT a great fan of if I am totally honest with you and let’s be real who really changes the bedsheets every so many weeks as it is suggested ok so after doing all that stuff in the morning and getting some reading done whilst I was getting dressed in my teeth etc I sat down at my desk and I got up my diary as usual and because it’s a Monday I thought I needed to fill out my diary for that whole week so that I could plan I was gonna do and I knew where I was going to be at certain times and not I could plan my work around that I then moved on to my to-do list which I separated today into things that were work related and those other things that are either to admin or going to the shops buying food replying to emails stuff like that so I managed to across a load of stuff off my other two days which are using the last week super-good I then went straight into a macbook and did some emails filled in my to-do list a bit further because i had essays that had just been set by email and I’m not gonna lie that leads me quite nicely onto the question or topic that I wanted to talk about today and yes and that is about essays and how many I tend to write a week so as you guys know I am a science student I studied biology basically and even though science at school does not seem like a very essay based subject for biology in particular it is very heavily essay base especially when you get to university so it is written you do some calculations you do some maths but it is predominantly a written subject so it is quite difficult for me to say how many essays I write every week because it does vary and it does depend on what my supervisor has set and it depends on the module basically because I do three in my second year now but as I am doing a biology of disease essay at the moment as you are watching this I thought I’d start with that module so my supervisor for this does normally set some essays so this was the third essay that I have written this term for biology of disease we had been set to write an essay by our supervisor but I decided to write – based on the bacteriology lectures that we had just so that I could get them more practice and then this essay was about parasites the module that we had just been studying and the lectures at the moment so we have been set some other work in addition to doing essays so that’s included some multiple-choice questions if you see my videos you will know that I love them so yes I have done three essays and we’re currently in around week five so it’s not one I say a week so I wrote about half that essay before I went and decided I was too hungry to anymore and maintain breakfast and checked my phone that’s so cute of milk or at home in our cupboard with all the bananas and mum was like Milkha guarding a banana station look at my banana station but it’s literally non-existent those two bananas and the station is currently being taken over by these chocolate things that I got when the qutuz committee the other day after the show I need milk are with me here to guard my banana station because someone’s clearly been taking them all so I then made myself some breakfast and got back to writing my essay then moving on to the other two modules that I do this year because I do three all together I have written for self in developmental biology I’ve written three essays so far for that module and our supervisor for cdb is very very organized and she sets essays every other week so in the term which lasts eight weeks we will write a total of four essays and those get set on a regular basis we have a regular hand in date Monday 5 p.m. so I know exactly how those supervisions are structured and then finally for my new robot a module our supervisor is super super relaxed he does not set any essays at all we decide when we want to write essays if we’ve enjoyed a certain topic and we think we’re gonna write an essay on it in the exam then we can write an essay and hand it in and get feedback and I have actually written three essays I think for that module as well and then I thought you’d like to hear me mumbling away and chattering to myself reading over my essay which I just finished and was just checking through adding in some extra bits in a different colored pen I basically then had finished that essay I stapled it together wrote my name on the top put it back in my folder ready to be taken to our next occasion and I crossed off my to-do list oh my goodness yes that is actually the best thing to do I then did some other minor little admin things on my to-do list and crossed well so you know we were powering through the to do this today so we had headshots for varsity when we’re competing against Oxford come I’ll show you oh gosh I think they look very twilight themed and the way they’ve been edited it’s really weird my headshot oh so scary yes I will be their Oxford Ollie’s coming for you with the eyebrow look yes jido I browsed it I was a very big fan of Twilight when it came out and it was like a big thing I loved it so my younger self would be very happy with the editing of those pictures because they do look very like Twilight themed it’s pretty scary so my very one and only hour of contact time today was at 12 I had a biology of disease lecture and we’ve just started a new topic about atherosclerosis and heart disease and stuff and oh my goodness guys look at this I was sitting next to bath today and she has this amazing pencil case it is like a fluffy banana pencil case everyone say hello to birth by the way look there she is but that banana pencil case I am in love with I think it’s so amazing I then shuffled along the bench bit as you saw because somebody came in sat next to me just as the lecture started which was a bit of a disruption but oh well we got back to looking at the notes on the lining stuff as I do adding some extra things that the lecturer was mentioning trying to make sure like understand everything I then go back to my room and I felt that I needed to do some folder organization just to clear out my workspace and to stop my folders overflowing because at this point they were bulging some of them so you’re in for a treat today guys because I decided to make pancakes and last week it was pancake day but I was very busy and I didn’t have time to make them so I thought I would do it as a delayed little celebration whatever you want to call it so is everybody ready for the first flip three two and yes and not so impressive it was first one always goes wrong okay let’s see what this one’s like hopefully this this one’s probably burnt on the bottom as well ready oh darn it got too burnt one’s not so bad on the other side these are honestly the best and easiest pancakes ever please please try them no no no kissing okay so despite this one being a very weird shape here we go let’s see if we burnt this one alright are you ready oh that’s the color we’re looking for that is a good color we’ve got the temperature right now so somewhere on the screen now I’m going to leave a link to the video where I have the full description and the full method of how you can do it yourselves and it’s always going to be in the description box down below okay so I got very into my pancakes then but I decided not to take it too far just in case I lost at that final pancake I then made this like berry sauce things go on them which i think just adds a finishing touch as well as my fruit my berries my chia seeds coconut shreds cacao nibs and here we are people the finished product without a doubt this was the best thing I’d done that day it was the highlight of my Monday and the best way to start your week with pancakes I would literally eat these things every day I’d forgotten how good they taste but yeah as I said check out the video and make them yourself because you will love them I can assure you but whilst I was eating those I did decide to read this article that I was going to get some information from for my next essay which I started on after lunch so this time I was just starting from scratch and writing notes this essay in contrast to the one that I’d written in the morning was for neurobiology and it was specifically about development of the neural system which I really enjoyed so I thought I would write an essay on it and it was quite likely that I would do so in the exam in summer so as I said Paul this essay had not been set by my supervisor but I had taken it upon myself to write this essay and hand it in because I enjoyed the lecture series so I just finished this essay I am now going to head down to the gym today I think I’ve written two essays today which is pretty good yep so I did feel pretty productive today because I completed two essays I quickly before I went to the gym I just replied some YouTube comments because one of my blogs had just gone live the day before and I hadn’t had a chance to read any of those comments and reply to some of your messages so I just quickly did that and then it got changed to the gym and headed down for a bit of a breather and a break from work which I do every day I do not work continuously each day I always take breaks like for example today I took a bit longer making my lunch making some pancakes which was totally ok and it’s totally fine to do that and yes this is me on the cross trainer trying to say hello to you guys and also today I went to the gym because I think that it’s very important that you move your body and you exercise in different ways not only should you be stimulating your brain but also your muscles and it releases lots of endorphins to make you feel good like this is me pretending that I’m flying on the cross trainer when I just lift one leg off and I what you think it was so fun so following my little gym session I came back to my room and I read through the practicum notes quickly because the next day we were going to have a practical and often I find it useful to read what we’re gonna do beforehand so that I have some idea of what’s going to be going on I then made my dinner as you can see I’ve got that on my desk and then I started you plan a third essay which I didn’t actually write today but I just got a detailed plan done so that I could start on it straight away the next day and this one was for my third module self developmental biology so today I had done a good balance of work from each of my modules so just going back to the question as to how many essays I do write a week I can’t give you a definite answer to that question because as I said it varies and it just depends on what’s been set and also the amount of work that I want to do but it’s also quite good to keep in mind that not only am I here at Cambridge writing essays but I also get other work set by my supervisors I have to make sure that I am keeping up to date with the lecture notes looking ahead of what we’re gonna do in practicals making sure that I’m understanding everything so yes there is a lot more to do other than just write essays is basically what I’m trying to say anyway the final thing I did this evening because I didn’t just plan an essay I also wrote up some lecture notes and I know that this is a very highly requested video as to how I make my notes and especially how I do it with plain paper without any lines because I think that’s quite unusual but I will be doing that video definitely at some point very soon so please like this video if you enjoyed it but also like this video if you would like to see one about how I wrote my notes and also because I’ve talked about about essays in this one I suppose I should do one about how I write my essays as well how I go about planning them rewriting them so yes that finished my day of studying I basically got into the bed which I had made I was very proud of myself and yes I will speak to you in my next video guys if you are new around here and you’ve stayed to the end then emails or subscribe and also as I said please like this video I know you guys love to study with me so please hit that thumbs up and I will speak to you in my next video guys have an amazing rest of the week and I’ll see you all very soon

Step1 Writing a Literature Review for a Thesis or Dissertation

the literature review provides the rationale for your research topic it should give an overview of the current research on that topic making sure now that your readers understand why your topic is an important or significant problem to research it should also just identify any gaps in the research and this is important because it shows why your topic is significant and why time should be taken to investigate your research problem now your literature review should also review relevant methodologies which will show how the research is to be done and what you can do for your own research design to investigate your research problem in this lesson we’re going to define literature review and the concepts that are required for completing a literature review I’m going to introduce to you some resources that would help you understand the differences between a theoretical framework and a conceptual framework and then I want you to be able to apply the five-step process for completing a literature review for your thesis proposal even though the literature review is really the hallmark of a scholarly research we see it done in journal articles and government reports and certainly in dissertations and theses a lot of students may have difficulty defining what is a literature review and furthermore students may even find it challenging to synthesize works in a literature review and that’s not really able to write a coherent review and above all my experience in working with undergraduate and graduate students it’s shown me that students often have difficulty with the structure of the literature review they typically write a series of unrelated paragraphs each of which just summarizes one of the works reviewed rather than actually integrating the analysis of all of the sources together themes or headings I really want to make sure that you understand what a literature review entails and one a video that really helped me as a graduate student was from the librarians at North Carolina State University and I want to share with you how they define a literature review because it fits beautifully for extension education agricultural communications agricultural education or failing consumer science education and what we expect of many of our graduate students let’s just take a moment and listen to these librarians explain what is involved in a literature review writing a literature review is an inevitable part of being a graduate student so before spending hours of your time working on a project involving a literature review it helps to understand what a literature review is and why it is important you may need to do a literature review as a part of a course assignment a capstone project or a master’s thesis or dissertation no matter the context a literature review is an essential part of the research process some important functions of a literature review are that it helps you to understand a research topic and develop your own perspective on a problem not only that it lets you show your instructor or thesis committee what you know about the topic your instructor or advisor may assume you know what a literature review is and that you understand what they are expecting from you you might hear phrases like what does the literature show us connect your ideas to the literature survey the literature on the topic well before you can review the literature you need to make sure you know what is meant by the literature a good definition of the literature is that it is a collection of all the scholarly writings on a topic these writings can be in the form of scholarly peer reviewed articles books and other sources like conference proceedings these may be called annual meetings or conventions the literature also includes dissertations written by other graduate students collectively these make up the literature visual okay what I want to share with you now is a little bit more detail about how to go about finding those sources of scholarly articles the conference proceedings the books the dissertations that are going to help you complete your own literature review but to do that I want to introduce to you a five-step process that can really help you prepare right for writing a literature review and the first you need to search for existing literature in your area of study really focusing on finding information that’s gonna address your research problem and objectives it’s really important to stay focused I find a lot of times the graduate students wander and write about everything they possibly can find about the topic rather than always going back and asking themselves does this relate to my research problem does this answer one of my research questions what have other researchers done that I can learn from to be able to address my questions or my objectives of my study second you’re gonna have to critically assess the literature that you find to determine if that information is accurate and reliable enough to include in your literature review third you’re gonna develop a theoretical framework and/or conceptual framework some masters theses and dissertations will have only a theoretical framework so will have only a conceptual framework and a few might have both a theoretical framework and a conceptual framework and it’s really important that you work with your committee chair on determining what type of framework you need to include in your thesis proposal fourth you’re gonna create an outline of your theory and the existing research that addresses your research problem statement and your objectives it’s really gonna help you break down your content into specific headings and help guide you in writing your literature review so that you do remain focused and then lastly you’re gonna write your literature of you which is roughly 25 to 30 pages in length and I’m going to go through each of these steps in further detail so you understand a bit more about the procedures I’m going to show you some methods of collecting and organizing your sources I want to make sure you understand that when writing a master’s thesis proposal or master’s thesis you really need to use primary sources these are original reports journal articles that have been peer-reviewed that unpublished and monthly or quarterly journals or conference proceedings you may find a little bit of value and a secondary source like a book that would refer to a statistical method a data analysis procedure maybe a theoretical framework insight that in your master’s thesis but for the most part you stay away from secondary sources because they are referring to the primary sources and these authors are publishing articles and cyclopædia or books that are about those primary sources and one problem I always have is that secondary their secondary sources can report information wrong or they may provide insufficient details I have found far too many students will just read an article say I love that source paraphrase with that secondary author says rather than going and finding the primary source of information yeah it does take more time to find that primary source but by you reading it interpreting it and writing it in your own words you’re gonna prevent any misinformation misunderstanding a lack of detail or plagiarism and so I want you to focus on finding primary sources for your theoretical framework and review of literature now how do you go about doing this what I like to recommend my students to do is to formulate a list of search terms that are going to be relevant to your there’s prom and your objectives or research questions or hypotheses and depending on your structure of your study and as you find articles and theses about your research poems collect a natural list of terms that you can use for finding your information so for example my master’s thesis surveyed Ohio corn and wheat growers to predict their willingness to adopt organic farming practices since consumer demand for granite organic grains and processed foods was growing and I wanted to use two theories the theory of planned behavior and the diffusion of innovations so I developed a number of search terms that included organic farming organic agriculture organic wheat organic corn the theory of planned behavior the diffusion of innovations adoption of organic Road crops attitude toward organic farm barriers to adopting organic farming and then benefits of adopting organic agriculture and I would type then these search terms in a number of queries to actually search journals to search databases to find conference proceedings with fine and typing as keyword and see if I can identify a relevant article for my study so one place I would recommend you doing is to use your search terms and create queries for the journals that are relevant to your research problem and objectives some of the journals that are very popular in our disciplines would include the Journal of agricultural education or the Journal of extension the Journal of applied communications the Journal of agricultural education and extension the Journal of Family and Consumer Science education and the Family and Consumer Science Research Journal however I don’t want you to just limit yourself to these journals because there’s more research being published than what’s in your discipline that can relate to your research prob so going back to my example of my master’s thesis I’m going to look at farmers adoption of organic farming practices for corn and wheat I referenced articles that used diffusion of innovations and the theory of planned behavior from the journal of rural studies American Journal of alternative agriculture agriculture and human values the Journal of sustainable agriculture and the Journal of agricultural environmental ethics I had to go outside of my discipline to truly find all of the necessary research that would cover my topic thoroughly enough that would let me form my review of existing literature as well as my theoretical framework so I could investigate my research problem so while these are amazing scholarly journals in our discipline I do not want you to feel compelled to only use them you need to step outside of our discipline and look at these problems holistically and how other researchers from other disciplines would also study something similarly so that you get a real big picture of what has already been done I also want you to search some databases and Utah State University has an amazing library catalog of articles and databases available for us to use I have used ProQuest dissertations and theses to find other dissertations and theses from universities like Iowa State University University of Florida Texas A&M; the Ohio State University University of nebraska-lincoln that have been about my topics and it’s really great to look and see how another graduate student has looked at that topic what sources have been I did what information has been learned during that research process and be able to possibly use that source of information or use their reference list as places to go for possible sources I also searched my key terms in academic premier and Eric ScienceDirect or JSTOR all of these databases contain a plethora of journals that are available and helpful for our disciplines you can also identify some possible databases by your subject area so if you’re not very familiar with the databases type in agriculture or Applied Economics or communication or education and see what databases are found and then search those databases to help you gather the journal articles because simply doing a Google Scholar search is not enough when it comes to a master’s thesis and I don’t want us to be limited by what Google allows us to find I want you to be able to go to these databases find journal articles and be able to even request borrowing them so that you have access to the research that can help you write your realtor review you can also search conference proceedings from the different associations that graduate students can belong to within our discipline I happen to be a member of the American Association for agricultural education the Association for communication excellence and the Southern Association for agricultural scientists all of those associations have our cultural communications and have conference proceedings so I will login I will download those conference proceedings and I search for key terms that might be relevant because these are studies that are being done within the last few years before they’ve gone to a journal article and so you’re gonna have very current findings you can maybe check with your chair if you can get access to some of these conference proceedings or perhaps if your student member log in and access them but maybe their committee members would have some ideas places that you can search for sources that are not necessarily just journals I do want to give a word of caution newspapers magazines and radio stories can provide some limited information relevant to a literature review and they can give some insight into the recent trends discoveries maybe changes that can be relevant to your research problem and you might be able to cite them in your introduction or perhaps in the significance of why your problem is being studied but it’s not really the most appropriate place to have them in the literature review they might give you that background you need for chapter one to justify why you need to study the topic that you’re studying I also want you to do one other thing check the reference list so the sources you locate to find some additional sources I love going back to a journal article and then looking at their references and seeing seeing then if I can find additional sources and do those searches and find those articles and read the abstracts to see if those studies would help in writing a literature review and I would encourage you to do the same because that can help cut down a little bit of your workload and relying on existing tools they are to help you in finding information and I always want to make sure you understand that you never assume that you’re going to read everything related to your research so the great thing to do is to maintain a search record of the key terms and places that you have gone to find information and then you can help share that information with your chair and the colleges reference librarian so they know what you’ve done and then they may be able to suggest additional sources for you if you tell them oh I’ve done a literature review and you can’t tell them the search terms you can’t tell them the journals you can’t tell them the databases that you’ve done have you really done a thorough job researching your topic because you are the expert and your chair and your committee are mentors and guides that are going to help you but we gotta know what you’ve done so that we can make sure we’re suggesting new things and not being in repetitive in the search process so I keep a journal when I’m doing my research studies I have a great book I carry it with me and for every research study I do I maintain records that are gonna help be able to track what’s been done and what’s missing and then I can go to colleagues and ask for suggestions when I need help and I certainly did this as a master’s degree student and as a doctoral student because it really gave me a way to structure conversations with my committee chair and my colleagues so that I was not wasting time but that I was drafting a really well-written literature review